Friday, November 21, 2014

Selective logging

Selective logging is the logging practice of entering a forest and only removing some trees, usually those which are unhealthy or in dense areas. Sometimes the logging is performed on the ground, but to not harm surrounding forest, it is more often done by air using a helicopter. Selective logging has been well-documented to improve forest health and reduce the dangers of wildfire and has been endorsed by the National Forest Service as the better alternative to clear-cutting. It is also supported by the UN. Another advantage is that through selection of which trees to log, rare species can be saved from the logger's saw. (Conservapedia)

It is true, selective logging doesn't have a strong impact on the overall species richness and diversity of tropical forest, however, it has been shown that this can vary considerably depending on the intensity of logging. This could result in changes in the composition of species, as forest-interior specialists disappear and are replaced with edge-tolerant, gap specialists. What's even more important is what happens after logging. The conversion of logged forest to agricultural land uses has a far greater negative impact on biodiversity than logging alone. Conversion to agriculture results in a major reduction in biodiversity. It is affecting a wide range of organisms and because it changes soil pH, carbon and nutrient content, it can cause major shifts in soil microbial communities such as fungi. These play crucial roles in the ecosystem as decomposers, pathogens and plant symbionts. Despite this, little has has been done in the tropics to assess the effect of land use changes on soil fungal communities.

Palm oil cultivation has been heavily criticized for severe environmental impacts especially through increased deforestation. Aside from its use as a food ingredient  it is increasingly used to produce biodiesel. However, the deforestation caused by oil palm plantations is perhaps more damaging to the climate than the benefits gained by switching to biofuel and that doesn't even includes the effects on the local biodiversity.

A new soil fungal community study looked at the effects caused by different intensities of logging. Researchers tried to evaluate if conversion of forest to oil palm plantation has a stronger impact on soil fungi than logging, as is the case for many other taxa. They utilized next generation technology to obtain fungal DNA Barcodes (ITS1 region) from extracted soil DNA. The results were used to compare communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, as well as areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. 

Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure.

Even from a more economic point of view this is alarming because radical changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. The results also show that logging has more subtle long term effects on the relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling . They are the fungal partner of the symbiosis between fungi and the roots of various plant especially tree species. However, to my surprise, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest. 

So, logged forest might not be an irretrievably damaged and violently altered system. Actually, protecting it from conversion to oil palm plantation may have considerable conservation benefits.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Type material on GenBank

I consider it very good news - GenBank now includes annotation of type material:

Type material is the taxonomic device that ties formal names to the physical specimens that serve as exemplars for the species. For the prokaryotes these are strains submitted to the culture collections; for the eukaryotes they are specimens submitted to museums or herbaria. The NCBI Taxonomy Database  now includes annotation of type material that we use to flag sequences from type in GenBank and in Genomes. 

In a recently published paper Scott Federhen from GenBank provides all the necessary details to this new feature. GenBank has indexed the Nucleotide domain of their Entrez database with ‘sequence from type [filter]’ which allows the user to retrieve sequence entries that are derived from type material. At the time of publication of the paper they listed 72 750 type sequences from different genes, representing 18 847 different species. These are available in the taxonomy dump files on our FTP site, and are searchable in Taxonomy Entrez and in the taxonomy browser.

From my research for my weekly column on new species descriptions I know how few of them actually make use of genetic data let alone DNA Barcodes. I am sure there is a plethora of reasons for this. It certainly would be too easy and almost an excuse to always blame it on the lack of funds. Very often it might also be the lack of any incentive. If I can publish a regular fully valid species description solely using morphology why would I want to add e.g. DNA Barcoding to it? It costs more, it is extra work, and even worse, some of my colleagues would actually criticize me for doing it. So, why are there taxonomists doing it anyway? The answer is rather simple - once they used it they started seeing the value in it. First and foremost it makes their work easier and allows them to focus on discovery. Increasingly often, molecular genetics leads to discovery of hitherto unrecognized species. A secondary effect is what it means for the scientific community at large. 

One key element of the Barcode standard that has been adopted by GenBank back in 2005 is an unambiguous link to the voucher specimen from which the Barcode was derived. If this voucher happens to be a type specimen the associated DNA Barcode is tightly linked to the original species description. Provided that all other requirements of the standard are met this becomes an ideal DNA Barcode. I did a very quick search on GenBank using the new annotation filter for types and the reserved keyword BARCODE and found 158 sequences for 90 species. Not a lot but a good start also given that this is a new feature. Not all sequences have been assigned the type designation. I just looked at one extreme example, the Butcher et al. paper from 2012 in which 179 new species of parasitic wasps were described largely using DNA Barcodes. The sequences are on GenBank and they have the magic BARCODE keyword but the connection to the types hasn't been made yet. 

It is probably time to look at all our GenBank submissions and check if they need an update. They could be from a type and deserve the extra recognition. Lots of work to do, but certainly worth the effort as Scott also states in his conclusions:

Sequence from type is a high-value subset of GenBank for which we can maintain a very high level of confidence in the taxonomic identification. Nomenclatural acts involving type material are carefully documented in the taxonomic literature, so we can reasonably hope to keep these identifications current...Diligent curation of sequences from type material in GenBank as outlined above can make this set even more reliable. Species with problematic taxonomy are still problematic, but egregious misidentifications can be found and corrected. This does not solve the more general problem of misidentified entries in GenBank, but does provide a reliable backbone of correctly identified entries that could help support a more general solution.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Discoveries of the week

Megaselia shadeae
A new Megaselia species, M. shadeae, with a large, central, pigmented and bubble-like wing spot and a greatly enlarged radial wing vein fork, is described from Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica. As part of the Zurquí All Diptera Biodiversity Inventory (ZADBI) project, it represents the first of an incredible number of new phorid species to be described from this one Costa Rican cloud forest site. A new, streamlined method of description for species of this enormous genus of phorid flies is presented.

The genus Megaselia is extremely rich in species (>2000) and has been characterized as an "open-ended taxon" due to its diversity and the complexity in describing new species. This single genus contains about half of the species of the Phoridae family, a majority of which are hitherto undescribed. This study not only provides a species description but also proposes an innovative method for streamlining Megaselia species descriptions to save hours of literature reviews and comparisons. The new species was named for the first author's niece.
no DNA Barcodes available


Seven new species of the genus Dongodytes
Credit: Mingyi Tian; CC-BY 4.0

Recent cave biodiversity surveys carried out in Du’an County and its adjacent areas of northwestern Guangxi, China, have revealed some exciting scientific findings. In a very limited area seven new species of the cavernicolous trechine genus Dongodytes Deuve, 1993 were found and are described: Dongodytes (s. str.) elongatus sp. n., D. (s. str.) troglodytes sp. n., D. (s. str.) lani sp. n., D. (Dongodytodes) brevipenis sp. n., D. (Dongodytodes) jinzhuensis sp. n., D. (Dongodytodes) inexpectatus sp. n. and D. (Dongodytodes) yaophilus sp. n. Diagnoses and notes on the genus, subgenera, and two known species in Du’an Karst, Dongodytes (s. str.) baxian Tian, 2011 and D. (Dongodytodes) deharvengi Tian, 2011, are also given. A key to subgenera and all species of Dongodytes is provided. To date, Dongodytes becomes one of the richest in species genera of subterranean carabid trechines in China with 12 species which are arranged into two subgenera. Dongodytes (s. str.) Deuve is composed of seven species, four of which from Du’an County, each of other three from Bama, Fengshan and Tian’e Counties, respectively. All species of the subgenus Dongodytodes Tian, 2011 are recorded from Du’an Karst. By having 10 species (nine Dongodytes and one Libotrechus Uéno, 1998), Du’an Karst holds the richest specific diversity of cavernicolous Trechinae in China. Dongodytes species are distributed in a very limited area of the river Hongshui He drainages in northwestern Guangxi, and the river acts as a natural barrier of Dongodytes dispersal at only a specific level. However, all members of Dongodytodes are recorded from the eastern or northern bank of Hongshui He.

Like most cave dwelling species, Dongodytes cave beetles show specific adaptations, such as the lack of eyes and colour, traits common among cave living organisms. The new species belong to the genus Dongodytes whose members are easily recognizable by their extraordinary slender and very elongated body. Members of this genus are usually very rare in caves, with only five species reported from China.
no DNA Barcodes available


Hemibrycon sanjuanensis

Hemibrycon sanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from H. boquiae, H. brevispini, H. cairoense, H. colombianus, H. mikrostiktos, H. metae, H. palomae, H. rafaelense and H. tridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3–4 scales in H. palomae, H. rafaelense, H. brevispini and H. cairoense, and 0–1 scales, in H. metae and H. boquiae). It further differs from H. colombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular). It differs from H. beni, H. dariensis, H. divisorensis, H. helleri, H. huambonicus, H. inambari, H. jabonero, H. jelskii, H. mikrostiktos, H. polyodon, H. quindos, H. raqueliae, H. santamartae, H. surinamensis, H. taeniurus, H. tridens, and H. yacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body). The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except H. cairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row).

The genus Hemibrycon has its greatest diversity in Andean streams and high mountain habitats with a few exception such as the new species. This new representative is named for the San Juan River Basin, a Pacific drainage, where the type series was collected.
no DNA Barcodes available


Ochetostethomorpha secunda

Ochetostethomorpha secunda sp. nov. from Namibia, the second species of the South African endemic genus is described, illustrated, and compared with O. nollothensis Schumacher, 1913. The new species is the third of the subfamily Sehirinae known from Namibia. Moreover, a DNA barcode sequence was generated for this new species (827 bp of cytochrome oxidase I) and was deposited in GenBank.

It is always nice to find a new description that is associated with a DNA Barcode. Unfortunately, both GenBank numbers provided lead nowhere. They are simply not released yet. Don't get me wrong. That's not a GenBank's fault. They need to be informed by the authors that the paper is available and therefore the sequences need to be released as well. I know that GenBank staff is screening papers as well and will make data available if they find published work associated with their accession numbers, however, that is tedious work and frankly, it shouldn't be them doing that. We need to make this a habit. Once our manuscripts are accepted we should inform GenBank about the release (and release BOLD data) or even better: we release once sequences are uploaded. I personally don't see any reasons to hold back sequence data. In this case I have notified GenBank of the publication. They are pretty quick in sequence release - but again, it is neither their nor my job to find out about releases. Maybe journals could help with that, either by following up on this or changing their rules accordingly.
This little hemipteran was named secunda to indicate that it is the second species of the genus.
DNA Barcode data theoretically available.


Corynoneura ecphora

A new species of Corynoneura Winnertz (1846) from Oriental China, C. ecphora sp. n. is described and illustrated as male. A distribution map of adult males in Oriental China is given. A key to known males of Oriental China is provided.

A new member of the family chironomidae. This taxon is extremely large and some people suggest that it might contain 10000 or more species. Having seen a large number of unnamed BINs over the last years of School Malaise Trap Program I don't doubt that at all. Non-biting midges are notoriously difficult to identify but at the same time very important indicator species for water quality.
The species name is derived from the Latin word ecphora, a projection in buildings, referring to sternapodeme (ingrowths from the exoskeleton of most arthropods that support the internal organs).
no DNA Barcodes available


Lophophysema eversa
We describe Lophophysema eversa sp. nov. (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Hyalonematidae) based on a single specimen collected from the South China Sea at a depth of 3683 m. The new species can be distinguished from the three known congeners by its unusual body shape with basalia on the side of the body, the lack of macramphidiscs, the combination of the pinular pentactins having spiny tangential rays and the pinular ray of atrialia longer than dermalia and canalaria. This is the first record of the genus Lophophysema from the South China Sea. We also use a partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to confirm the family assignment of the new specimen.

The species name for this sponge is derived from the Latin word "eversus", meaning everted, referring to the notably everted surface of the central cavity. Molecular data (16S) are available but no DNA Barcodes.
no DNA Barcodes available


Friday, November 14, 2014

Predators that save Millions

The enemy: Hypothenemus hampeii
Biodiversity loss will likely have surprising and dramatic consequences for human wellbeing. Identifying species that benefit society represents a critical first step towards predicting the consequences of biodiversity loss. Though natural predators prevent billions of dollars in agricultural pest damage annually, characterizing which predators consume pests has proven challenging. Emerging molecular techniques may illuminate these interactions. 

No doubt, invasive species, pests, and disease vectors are a danger to humanity and cost us a lot of money. In that context it would be great if we could identify those species and populations that actually provide benefits to society by simply consuming harmful organisms. Identifying those service providers, however, is anything but straightforward. It is not like we are witnessing these particular predation events. For example, pest control is a critical service and insect predators likely saved farmers billions of dollars annually in avoided pest damage. But how can we identify predators that are so valuable to us. Visual identification of prey gut content used to be the number one methodological choice but it seldom delivers the necessary taxonomic resolution. In addition the necessary inspection labor is considerable and sampling techniques often result in high mortality rates among caught predators.

The use of molecular methods, such as DNA Barcoding, seems to be advisable. Firstly, molecular identification  would allow researchers to shift to feces or regurgitates from carnivores, insectivores, and herbivores of diverse taxa to infer their diet, making much less intrusive and less dangerous for the test subjects. We also know that molecular methods provide a much better resolution and higher accuracy than the morphological inspection of partially digested remains.

Researchers from Stanford University used molecular fecal analysis to identify bird predators of coffee’s most damaging insect pest— the coffee berry borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampeii). This pest has invaded almost every coffee-producing country in recent years. Earlier experiments have shown that birds consume the borer, but further insights have proven difficult because of the borer’s small size (~2 mm) which makes witnessing predation impossible.

The researchers collected samples at coffee plantations in southern Costa Rica and conducted feeding trials to determine the sensitivity of the method. They used borer-specific primers to target an 185 bp segment of the DNA Barcode region and came up with promising and interesting results:

While feeding trials confirmed the efficacy of our approach, detection rates were low. Low detection rates suggest that there are other species that consume the borer that we did not identify. Nevertheless, we identified six species that consume the borer. The species we did identify shared traits that may be characteristic of these other predators. These species had narrow diet breadths, thin bills, and short wings; traits shared with borer predators in other systems. Borer predators were not threatened; therefore, safeguarding pest control necessitates managing species beyond those at risk of regional extinction by maintaining populations in farmland habitats. Generally, our results demonstrate potential for pairing molecular methods with ecological analyses to yield novel insights into species interactions.



Thursday, November 13, 2014

Ants of Manhattan

Credit: Shelby Anderson
Global urbanization is rapidly expanding and we know that most of the world's humans now live in cities. Most ecological studies have, however, focused on protected areas, such as national parks, as cities are often perceived as not having any ecology.

A group of colleagues decided to test if the theories developed to predict biodiversity in protected areas could also predict species diversity in urban environments. To explore this issue, the researchers decided to focus on ants, partly because ants are ecologically important, but also because the ant species composition in a given area can tell you a lot about its environment.

They collected ant samples at approximately 50 sites in Manhattan, including street medians, urban forests and recreational areas in city parks. They examined each site thoroughly, turning over rocks and sifting through leaf litter and  found not only a wide range of species, but also significant differences in the levels of biodiversity in different urban areas. In fact, they showed that the city has much more diversity than initially expected. In total they've encountered 42 different species across all sites and they exclusively used morphological species determination. I wonder if the results would have been different if they had added DNA Barcoding.

Interestingly the type of urban habitat seems to be more important in determining ant diversity than the proximity between habitats. Sites in urban forests that were far apart had more similar species than an urban forest site and a recreational area site that were right next to each other. 

Overall existing diversity theories from protected areas were fairly accurate at predicting the levels of diversity in urban spaces:

Many predictions derived from less modified ecosystems were supported by our findings: despite being the most intensively sampled habitat, high stress urban medians had less variability in ant composition –both within and among sites – than either urban parks or urban forests, the lowest stress habitat – urban forests-had significantly more accumulated species and a higher number of unique species than higher stress habitats, and urban parks, which have intermediate levels of chronic environmental stress, also had intermediate levels of variation in among-site species composition, accumulated species richness, and the incidence of unique species. The most common species also differed across Manhattan's urban habitat mosaic.

Only one prediction did not turn out as expected. The researchers thought there would be more exotic species in high-stress environments, e.g. street medians. As it turns out exotic species were equally common across all habitats.

This tells us that urban ecosystems are complex and deserve future study -- which could not only inform our understanding of urban ecology, but also our understanding of ecology as a whole. The good news is that it also tells us that existing biodiversity theories can help to guide that future work.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Weed adaptation

Oxford ragwort
Invasive species undergo behavioural, phenological and morphological changes when confronted with novel conditions. However, we know remarkably little about the trajectories invasive species follow through time. This limits our understanding of the process of invasion, our power to predict the establishment and ecological effects of invasive species, and our understanding of how species respond to environmental changes. The main aim of this paper is to fill this knowledge gap, by quantifying phenotypic change in three plant species through their first 200 years since introduction.

I stole this abstract from a new study which is likely the first to have tracked the phenotypic change of introduced plant species from the beginning of their invasion to the present day. This was only made possible by the centuries-old  tradition of storing plant specimens in herbaria and the collecting obsessions of many individuals - not only professionals.

The international research team looked at three common weeds: Oxford ragwort (Senecio squalidus), winter speedwell (Veronica persica) and a willow herb (Epilobium ciliatum) all of which were introduced to the UK between 120 and 220 years ago. Oxford ragwort was introduced into the UK from Sicily and was first recorded in the wild in 1794. This yellow daisy has spread widely along the railway lines of Britain. 
Winter speedwell is native to Eurasia and was first recorded in the UK in 1826. The willow herb Epilobium ciliatum is native to the Americas but was first recorded in in the UK in 1891.

The researchers found the weeds are getting increasingly better adapted to life in their new environment, so they will perhaps become even more problematic invaders as time goes on. The team measured changes throughout the centuries in leaf shape, leaf area and plant height, features which reflect how plants adapt to new water, nutrient and light conditions.

The Oxford ragwort underwent about a 20 per cent increase in both leaf area and plant height since its introduction. The leaves of the winter speedwell became rounder and 17% smaller, while plant height increased by 14 %. And the willow herb showed a 50 % decrease in leaf area. All three invasive species showed evidence of change at least in one trait during the last 50 years. Changes in the species' traits seemed to happen in spurts: changes are not in a consistent progression, but rather fluctuate through time.

from geochembio.com
The colleagues are well aware of the fact that the changes and patterns they observed could be due to phenotypic plasticity with little impact on the genotypic variation of the three species. Other plants such as dandelions are textbook examples for the ability of an organism to change  only its phenotype in response to changes in the environment. The only way to prove that the observed changes have a genetic basis is to use common garden experiments, and this approach does not allow researchers to follow the trajectory of change through time.

The authors conclude: Our results suggest that some invasive species are yet to demonstrate their full potential as invaders. Overall, our study shows that species are labile in the face of environmental change. Identifying the long term trajectories of invasive species’ phenotypic change during invasion provides important clues for their appropriate management.


Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Discoveries of the week

Mugilogobius hitam
A new species of Mugilogobius is described from Lake Towuti, central Sulawesi, diagnosed by its possession of a distinct transverse sensory papilla pattern on the cheek, overall blackish colour on head, body and fins and relatively large adult size for the genus. Although it may superficially resemble the black goby Mugilogobius amadi from Lake Poso, M. hitam, new species, lacks the numerous predorsal scales (22–36 in M. amadi versus 17–19), high second dorsal fin ray count (I,9, usually I,10, versus I,7–8) and narrow head and protruding chin of M. amadi. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) data provide clear support for the species status of M. hitam, new species, indicate that all the Malili Lakes Mugilogobius may well represent a species flock and place M. sarasinorum from Lake Poso as its most likely sister taxon. In addition to the tectonic lake species, we report the occurrence of M. latifrons in streams of the Malili Lakes drainage.

Another new species of the huge fish family Gobiidae. This new species is so far known only from a single site in Lake Towuti, Central Sulawesi. The species name, hitam, is the Bahasa Indonesia word for black.
DNA Barcodes available


Pseudobarbus verloreni
Pseudobarbus verloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except P. skeltoni, P. burchelli, and P. burgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from P. burgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system.

And another new fish species. This one was discovered in the Verlorenvlei River system in South Africa after which the species was also named.
no DNA Barcodes available (it totally eludes me why cyt b was used)


Cyphomyia baoruco

A new species of Cyphomyia Wiedemann, C. baoruco sp. n., is described from the Dominican Republic. A key to the species of Cyphomyia known from the Caribbean islands is provided.

This paper should get a prize for the shortest abstract. The author doesn't waste any space and provides what is needed to understand what the paper is about. Great. This new fly species is named after a mountain range, Sierra de Baoruco in the Dominican Republic, where the holotype specimen was collected.
no DNA Barcodes available



Parapinnanema hawaiiensis
A new species from the family Chromadoridae is described from samples collected during Dr Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914–16 to Honolulu, Hawaii. Parapinnanema hawaiiensis sp. nov. is characterized by a low c’ ratio and especially by a peculiar complex morphology of the median part of the gubernaculum. An updated and modified key to all the valid species of Parapinnanema is proposed.

This species was actually collected during a Pacific Expedition from 1914–1916 by Dr Theodor Mortensen  in an unspecified coastal area of Honolulu, Hawaii. About 100 years later researchers dug out this nematode specimen mounted for light microscopy and deposited at the Natural History Museum of Denmark. The species name refers to the geographical origin.
no DNA Barcodes available


Chironius diamantina

We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in “zigzag”) in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective.

A new member of the largest family of snakes, the Colubridae. Most colubrids are nonvenomous or have venom that is not harmful to humans. This new species was found in the Chapada Diamantina, central region of the state of Bahia in Brazil, hence the species name.
no DNA Barcodes available


Aulacoseira veraluciae
Aulacoseira lirata
Examination of samples from different aquatic environments from Brazil revealed the presence of a new Aulacoseira species. Aulacoseira veraluciae Tremarin, Torgan & T. Ludwig is described and illustrated with light and scanning electron microscopy, and its morphology compared with that of similar species, such as A. muzzanensis (Meister) Krammer, A. granulata (Ehrenberg) Simonsen and A. agassizii (Ostenfeld) Simonsen. The new species is characterized mainly by the straight pervalvar rows of areolae, morphology of the linking spines, shape and position of the rimoportulae on the valve mantle, deepness and thickness of the ringleiste.

A new diatom species found in the Rio Grande do Sul, Patos lake, Brazil. No image of the original species but a relative as the original paper is hiding behind a paywall.
no DNA Barcodes available